Sunday, May 27, 2007

Are Organic Foods Healthier?

by: Zachary Thompson

There are many contaminants that assault us on a daily basis. These toxins are in the air we breathe, the water we drink and the foods we eat, to name just a few. Eating organic food greatly reduces the toxins we consume in our food. Organic food is becoming more popular as people are becoming more health conscious. There are now certain regulations for growing organic foods commercially and many foods, especially eggs, bear an organic certification label.

What is organic food?

Organic food is food that is grown naturally without the aid of commercial fertilizers and chemicals like insecticides, herbicides, and anti-fungal substances. Organic growers use only organic fertilizers and remedies for growing plants. These foods are natural and unrefined. Feeding the animals food that has no chemicals added to it in turn produces organic animal products such as meat, poultry and eggs. For example, chickens and poultry are allowed to roam free as opposed to being kept cooped up in cages, and fruits and vegetables are not chemically ripened.

Advantages of organic food:

There are several advantages for us in eating organic foods:

• There are considerably less toxins in the food as it is grown without the aid of chemicals

• It is often better tasting

• Better for you-there are more nutrients in organic foods and Omega 3 is often found in organic eggs.

How Organic food will improve your health:

A natural diet consisting of unrefined foods, more fiber less chemicals and toxins will improve your overall health in several ways:

• More fiber from fiber rich foods and those that are unrefined will help your digestive system and allow your whole body to function better.

• Some organic eggs are produced from chickens that are fed on vegetarian feed. This will cut down trans fat and animal fat in the eggs. Omega 3 is found in organic eggs, this substance can be good for the heart.

• There is more iron in the yolk of an organic egg. As seen by the pale color of the commercial egg yolk as opposed to the dark yellow/orange of the organic egg.

• Due to the absence of refinement in organic food it is more satisfying and will help you with any weight loss program by encouraging you to eat less.

• Organic fruits and vegetables have more nutrition than commercially grown ones so you will be feeding your body with better food and improve your overall health.

Organic foods are the wave of the future as more people become more educated about their health and the foods that are good for them. At present, prices are a little higher for organic products but it is worth it when you consider the benefits. By switching to organic food you will improve your health and wellbeing and you will also be able to boost your immune system and help your body fight off diseases and toxins.

Wednesday, May 23, 2007

Melilea Progene



Melilea Progene lahir daripada kajian yang terperinci dan pengawalan kualiti yang ketat untuk menghasilkan suatu produk yang dapat memberikan kecantikan dan pada masa yang sama memberi kesihatan yang baik. Tiada di antara 70 negara, 3500 kajian dan 3,200,000 dokumen yang dikaji mempunyai formulasi yang sama dengan Melilea Progene. Prinsip asas dalam penciptaan produk ini adalah berdasarkan pada aplikasi sistem keseimbangan Yin Yang dalam perubatan Cina dan perubatan Barat yang menggunakan SOD untuk menyingkirkan radikal bebas. Kajian dan perkembangan produk ini telah mengambil masa yang lama, tenaga manusia yang ramai dan duit yang banyak dilaburkan untuk mencapai kejayaan yang terbaik.

Melilea Progene juga digunakan dan turut disyorkan oleh beberapa ratu cantik antarabangsa, ia banyak dilaporkan dalam surat khabar dan majalah kebangsaan.


Faktor Penuaan

Sains telah menemui bahawa penuaan adalah berkait rapat dengan radikal bebas. Akibat daripada tekanan hidup pada masa kini, ramai orang telah mengamalkan cara hidup yang tidak sihat. Mereka kurang atau langsung tidak bersenam, sering merokok dan mempunyai tabiat pemakanan yang tidak teratur. oleh sebab itu, badan mereka telah dicerobohi radikal bebas dan ini juga telah menyebabkan sistem badan tidak dapat berfungsi dengan baik dan membawa kepada pelbagai penyakit, masalah kulit dan masalah penuaan awal.

Radikal bebas merupakan suatu molekul yang amat kecil, lebih kecil daripada virus dan bakteria. Ia merupakan bahan binaan asas badan kita. Radikal bebas merupakan molekul yang tidak stabil dan untuk mencapai kestabilan, radikal-radikal bebas ini akan cuba untuk merampas elektronn daripada sel-sel yang berhampiran untuk mencapai keseimbangan. Akibatnya, radikal bebas akan merosakkan sel dan tisu normal sehingga menyebabkan degenerasi fungsi badan.


Program Pembaharuan Sel

Melilea Progene merupakan suplemen untuk kecantikan dan kesihatan yang sesuai untuk lelaki atau pun perempuan. Melilea Progene mengandungi nutrien SOD yang berkualiti tinggi dan terbukti dapat menyingkirkan radikal bebas dalam badan kita.


Enzim Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD)

Ditemui oleh Saintis Amerika, McCord dan Fridovich pada tahun 1969 dan telah digunakan dalam penyembuhan klinikal selama lebih kurang 30 tahun. SOD boleh diekstrak daripada haiwan atau pun tumbuhan dan wujud dalam semua benda hidup seperti burung, gandum, buah oren, bayam, cili, susu (termasuk susu ibu) dan yis.

Dalam bidang perubatan, SOD telah diketahui dapat digunakan dalam keadaan yang berkaitan dengan penuaan seperti memperbaiki keadaan kulit yang berpigmentasi, diabetis, katarak, masalah jantung dan pelbagai masalah kulit.

Monday, May 21, 2007

Melilea Greenfield Organic


Melilea Greenfield Organic diformulasikan oleh pengkaji dan pakar organik yang terkenal di USA. Dr Henry Chang dengan berdasarkan kepada 3 fungsi yang terunggul di dunia iaitu ;


fungsi makanan organik

fungsi naturopati

fungsi teori pemulihan semulajadi


Melilea Greenfield Organic dihasilkan oleh Greenfield USA Corporation yang merupakan sebuah kilang pembuatan makanan organik yang berdaftar dengan Department of Health Services, Food & Drug Branch, State of Carlifornia, USA sebagai mematuhi semua peruntukan peraturan makanan Amalan Perkilangan Baik Persekutuan (Federal Good Manufacturing Practice). Ia juga telah diuji oleh makmak-makmal yang diiktiraf di seluruh dunia dan mengesahkan makanan ini adalah selamat.


Melilea Greenfield Organic telah dikategorikan sebagai makanan organik bebas daripada pencemaran yang bertaraf 5 bintang oleh Organic United Nations Friendship Association (OUNFA) dan disahkan HALAL oleh Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America (IFANCA), Amerika Syarikat.


Friday, May 18, 2007

TOKSIN PUNCA SEGALA PENYAKIT

Memang lumrah bagi setiap insan jatuh sakit. Lazimnya, ini disebabkan oleh pengumpulan toksin dalam badan manusia. Toksin mungkin berpunca daripada udara persekitaran sementara makanan yang kita makan mungkin dihasilkan daripada sumber racun yang sering mengandungi bahan pengawet, pewarna, pewangi dan penstabil makanan.

Kemungkinan juga haiwan ternakan dan pokok tanaman terdedah kepada baja dan racun serangga kimia semasa peringkat pertumbuhan.

Apabila manusia termakan bahan tambahan ini atau menyedut wap daripada unsur-unsur ini, toksin terkumpul di dalam badan dan lama kelamaan ia akan merosakkan sel-sel badan dan sistem imun badan kita. Lambat laun ia akan meresap ke dalam aliran darah dan merosakkan sistem penghadaman (perut, usus kecil dan besar), sistem penyaringan (hati dan buah pinggang) dan sistem endokrin (kelenjar, pitiutari, adrenal dan tiroid) mengakibatkan kesan-kesan sampingan seperti penyakit.

Menurut falsafah penyembuhan organik, kesihatan boleh dijejaskan oleh toksin dan ia tidak seharusnya dibiarkan dalam tubuh kita. Misalnya, sembelit akan menyebabkan sisa buangan dalam badan kita terpendap dan seterusnya menjejaskan fungsi sistem penghadaman. Lama kelamaan, ia boleh menyebabkan penyakit serius yang memudaratkan kesihatan.

PRINSIP-PRINSIP MAKANAN ORGANIK DAN GAYA HIDUP

Semenjak 25 tahun lalu, lebih daripada 200 orang Amerika yang merupakan perintis dalam bidang organik. Mereka telah menguasahakan ladang organik di Arizona bagi mengamalkan gaya hidup yang bebas daripada pencemaran. Ini merupakan satu permulaan dan revolusi dalam bidang makanan organik.

Gaya hidup organik adalah bertentangan dengan prinsip-prinsip teknologi pemprosesan makanan moden yang biasanya akan mengandungi unsur-unsur kimia yang berbahaya kepada kesihatan manusia. Prinsip makanan organik mementingkan pengembalian pada alam semulajadi. Prinsip organik merupakan faktor yang terpenting pada abad ke 21 yang bakal mengemudi kita ke arah cara hidup sihat.

Hari ini, masyarakat sepatutnya menggunakan kaedah penanaman secara organik yang paling mesra alam bagi menikmati kemanfaatan kesihatan asa. Ia juga berkesan dalam mengelakkan kemunculan penyakit-penyakit baru pada abad ini. Falsafah penyembuhan semulajadi menyatakan bahawa “Makanan organik adalah ubat terbaik dan makanan terbaik adalah makanan organik”.

Tumbuh-tumbuhan organik membekalkan fungsi menyahtoksikan terbaik. Selain itu, ia juga dapat membantu dalam mengurangkan lemak yang berlebihan. Keputusannya, anda dapat membersihkan toksin daripada keseluruhan tubuh anda. Pada masa yang sama, ia dapat membekalkan nutrien-nutrien pada tubuh, mengaktifkan sel-sel, mengimbangkan sistem hormon. Ia juga dapat mempertingkatkan fungsi organ-organ dan mengekalkan kesihatan secara menyeluruh.

Falsafah penyembuhan semulajadi bergantung kepada kaedah organik yang secara semulajadi dalam mengubati penyakit. Gaya hidup organik merupakan asas yang penting dalam menghindari pelbagai jenis penyakit, terutamanya penyakit-penyakit biasa yang kerap berlaku.

Jika anda percayai bahawa sistem tubuh dalaman adalah sangat penting bagi kesihatan anda, maka sudah pastinya anda perlu mengamalkan gaya hidup yang paling serasi dengan alam semulajadi. Inilah yang dikatakan penyembuhan secara semulajadi.

Penanaman Organik

Penanaman organik memerlukan kawasan dan tanah yang bebas daripada pencemaran. Sebelum penanaman dijalankan, tanah tersebut perlu dibiarkan selama 2 hingga 7 tahun. Ini bertujuan memastikan tanah tidak terdedah pada bahan kimia atau pencemaran yang lain. Lazimnya, penanaman konvensional atau bukan organik melibatkan penyuntikan ubat perangsang atau bahan tambahan bagi meningkatkan proses pertumbuhan, baja tiruan dan racun perosak. Penggunaan bahan-bahan kimia ini adalah dilarang sama sekali dalam penanaman organik. Selain itu, kawasan disekelilingnya juga harus bebas daripada pencemaran bagi mengelakkan kontaminasi. Ini dapat menjamin penghasilan mutu makanan yang paling berkualiti.


Dari peringkat penuaian sehingga peringkat pembungkusan, ia dilakukan dengan kawalan ketat bagi mengelakkan pencemaran daripada bahan kimia seperti pewarna, bahan pengawet dan penstabil tiruan. Jika semua peringkat dapat dikawal dengan baik, maka hasil pengeluaran bolehlah dikelaskan sebagai makanan pencemaran sifar atau 100% tanpa pencemaran.

MELILEA KECANTIKAN LUARAN DAN DALAMAN

Kecantikan dan kesihatan, kedua-duanya merupakan impian yang paling ingin dimiliki oleh manusia pada masa kini. Malang sekali, kebanyakan produk yang berada di pasaran hanya memberi kesan jangka penek dan tidak menjaminkan kecantikan dan kesihatan sejati. Para consumer terpaksa mengeluarkan wang yang banyak tanpa sebarang keputusan yang baik. Lebih teruk lagi, ia mungkin memudaratkan kesihatan.

Melilea International menawarkan secara eksklusif siri produk yang paling selamat, berkesan secara semulajadi untuk meningkatkan dan menyempurnakan kecantikan dan kesihatan anda.

Konsep kecantikan dalaman dan luaran merupakan satu pendekatan holistik kepada penampilan dan kesihatan. Siri produk Melilea diformulasikan berdasarkan konsep ini dengan tujuan mencipta keseimbangan sempurna kepada anda, baik dari segi luaran mahu pun dalaman. Ia memastikan dimensi baru kecantikan dan kesihatan dapat dicapai dengan cara yang semulajadi. Konsep ini merupakan penyelesaian yang terbaik untuk masalah-masalah kulit seperti kedutan, kekenduran, alergi, kulit berminyak, kekeringan , penuaan, pigmentasi dan bintik-bintik hitam.

Bagi memperolehi kebaikan yang sepenuhnya daripada produk-produk yang dihasilkan daripada penyelidikan dan teknologi canggih, anda hanya perlu mengikuti beberapa langkah yang senang dituruti dengan menggunakan siri produk kecantikan dalaman dan luaran Melilea.


Melilea Greenfield Organic

Makanan organik yang dapat memberi nutrien botanikal yang semulajadi kepada tubuh anda. Ia merupakan makanan yang terbaik semasa program penyahtoksidan dengan berpuasa secara organic.


Melilea Progene

Makanan suplimen yang mengandungi herba semulajadi dan enzim SOD. Ia dapat meningkatkan tahap kesihatan maksimum untuk membolehkan anda mencapai kecantikan luaran. Anda akan kelihatan lebih muda dan bertenaga.

Melilea Organic Soya Drink

Diperbuat daripada kacang soya organic Non-GMO (bebas GMO) yang berkualiti tinggi. Melilea Organic Soya Drink diproses melalui teknologi moden bagi mengekalkan nutrien-nutrien yang sedia ada serta memberikan rasa yang enak sekali. Minuman soya yang lazat ini dapat memenuhi keperluan harian anda terhadap nutrien-nutrien seperti protein, kalsium dan vitamin.


Melilea Organic Henry Instant Fruit Drink Mix

Minuman yang diperbuat daripada buah-buahan organik ini diformulasikan khas oleh Bapa Teori Organic USA, Dr. Henry Chang. Kini, anda sekeluarga dapat menikmati minuman yang bukan sehaja enak dan semulajadi, malahan untuk kesihatan.


Melilea Botanical Skin Care Series

Ucapkan selamat tinggal kepada bedak muka dan alas bedak yang menyumbat liang roma kulit anda. Melilea Botanical Skin Care Series mengandungi ekstrak tumbuh-tumbuhan semulajadi yang mudah diserap oleh kulit. Ianya dapat memberi kelembapan, oksigen serta nutrien-nutrien yang diperlukan oleh kulit anda. Impian bagi mencapai kecantikan sejati kini boleh direalisasikan.


Melilea Classic Toning System

Sistem ini direka khas bagi membolehkan otot muka bersenam dengan cara terapi urut pada titik akupuntut. Hasilnya, kulit muka anda menjadi lebih sihat, bebas daripada kedutan dan peredaran darah berjalan dengan lebih baik.


Melilea e-Nail Environmental Colors Series

Melilea e-Nail Environmental Colors Series yang mesra alam, terhasil daripada ramuan seperti air suling dan minyak pati yang memberikan haruman semula jadi. Ia tidak menggunakan bahan-nahan kimia berbahaya yang boleh merosakkan kuku dan mencemar alam sekitar. Terdapat juga Melilea e-Nail Home Manicure Kit yang menjadikan kuku anda sihat dan cantik.


Dengan Siri Kecantikan Dalam dan Luaran Melilea, anda dapat mencapai kecantikan yang sejati dengan semulajadi.

Wednesday, May 16, 2007

Organic food For Women


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_food

Organic food is produced according to certain production standards. For crops, it means they were grown without the use of conventional pesticides, artificial fertilizers, human waste, or sewage sludge, and that they were processed without ionizing radiation or food additives. For animals, it means they were reared without the routine use of antibiotics and without the use of growth hormones.

Increasingly, organic food production is legally regulated. Currently, the US, the European Union, Japan and many other countries require producers to obtain organic certification in order to market food as organic.

Historically, organic farms have been small family-run farms[1] – which is why organic food was once only available in small stores or farmers' markets. Now, organic foods are becoming much more widely available – organic food sales within the United States have enjoyed 17 to 20 percent growth for the past few years[2] while sales of conventional food have grown at only about 2 to 3 percent a year. Organic baby food is popular too, sales of which increased 21.6 percent in 2006, while baby food overall has only grown 3.1 percent in the same year.[3] This large growth is predicted to continue, and many companies are jumping into the market.[4]

There is evidence that organic farms are more sustainable and environmentally sound, among other benefits. These claims, however, are subject to dispute and are not settled among scientists. One vocal critic in particular, Anthony Trewavas, has written detailed critiques of organic agriculture.Types of organic food


Mixed organic bean sprouts
Mixed organic bean sprouts
See also: Organic farming for information on the production of organic food.

Organic foods can be either fresh or processed, based on production methods.

[edit] Fresh food

Fresh, "unprocessed" organic food, such as vegetables and fruits are purchased directly from growers, at farmers' markets, from on-farm stands, supermarkets, through speciality food stores, and through community-supported agriculture (CSA) projects. Unprocessed animal products like organic meat, eggs, dairy, are less commonly available in "fresh" form.

Chips, cookies, and other snacks are an example of processed food.
Chips, cookies, and other snacks are an example of processed food.

[edit] Processed food

Processed food accounts for most of the items in a supermarket. Often, within the same store, both organic and conventional versions of products are available, and the price of the organic version is usually higher (see modern developments). Most processed organic food comes from large food conglomerates[7] producing and marketing products like canned goods, frozen vegetables, prepared dishes and other convenience foods.

Processed organic food usually contains only (or a specified percentage of) organic ingredients and no artificial food additives, and is often processed with fewer artificial methods, materials and conditions (no chemical ripening, no food irradiation, etc.).

[edit] Identifying organic food

At first, organic food comprised mainly fresh vegetables. Early consumers interested in organic food would look for chemical-free, fresh or minimally processed food. They mostly had to buy directly from growers: "Know your farmer, know your food" was the motto. Personal definitions of what constituted "organic" were developed through firsthand experience: by talking to farmers, seeing farm conditions, and farming activities. Small farms grew vegetables (and raised livestock) using organic farming practices, with or without certification, and the individual consumer monitored.

Consumer demand for organic foods continues to increase, and high volume sales through mass outlets, like supermarkets, is rapidly replacing the direct farmer connection. For supermarket consumers, food production is not easily observable, and product labelling, like "certified organic", is relied on. Government regulations and third-party inspectors are looked to for assurance.

A "certified organic" label is usually the only way for consumers to know that a processed product is "organic".

[edit] Legal definition

The National Organic Program (run by the USDA) is in charge of the legal definition of organic in the United States and does organic certification. It administers the Organic Seal to products and producers that meet strict requirements.
The National Organic Program (run by the USDA) is in charge of the legal definition of organic in the United States and does organic certification. It administers the Organic Seal to products and producers that meet strict requirements.
Main article: Organic certification

To be certified organic, products must be grown and manufactured in a manner that adheres to standards set by the country they are sold in:

Australia: NASAA Organic Standard.
Britain: Organic Farmers and Growers Organic Standards and the Soil Association
Canada: Canada Gazette, Government of Canada.
Japan: JAS Standards.
United States: National Organic Program (NOP) Standards.

In the United States, the Organic Food Production Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C.A. § 6501-22) required that the USDA develop national standards for organic products.[8] The regulations (7 C.F.R. Part 205) are enforced by the USDA through the National Organic Program under this act. These laws essentially require that any product that claims to be organic must have been manufactured and handled according to specific NOP requirements. A USDA Organic seal identifies products with at least 95% organic ingredients.

[edit] Arguments favoring organic food

Defining the benefits of organic food has largely been left to word of mouth, occasional media coverage, and the promotional efforts of organic advocates. Even though many large food and beverage corporations, like Kraft Foods, have rapidly moved to acquire significant stake in both fresh and processed organic products,[9] the specific sales points of "organics" go largely unmentioned on product packaging and in advertising.

These comparisons need to be evaluated with care because neither conventional nor organic farming practices are uniform.

[edit] For the environment

In several surveys that have looked at smaller studies to build an overall comparison between conventional and organic systems of farming a general agreement on benefits has been built. In these surveys[10][11] it has been found that:

  • Organic farms do not release synthetic pesticides into the environment—some of which have the potential to harm local wildlife.
  • Organic farms are better than conventional farms at sustaining diverse ecosystems, i.e., populations of plants and insects, as well as animals.
  • When calculated either per unit area or per unit of yield, organic farms use less energy and produce less waste, e.g., waste such as packaging materials for chemicals.

See "Organic FAQs" in the journal Nature for more details.[12]

One study found a 20% smaller yield from organic farms using 50% less fertilizer and 97% less pesticide.[13] Studies comparing yields have had mixed results.[14] Supporters claim that organically managed soil has a higher quality[15] and higher water retention. This may help increase yields for organic farms in drought years. One study of two organic farming systems and one conventional found that, in one year's severe crop season drought, organic soybean yields were 52% and 96% higher than the conventional system and organic maize yields were 37% higher in one system, but 62% lower in the other.[16] Studies are also consistent in showing that organic farms are more energy efficient.[17]

[edit] For producers

For those who work on farms, there have been many studies on the health effects of pesticide exposure.[18] Even when pesticides are used correctly, they still end up in the air and bodies of farm workers. Through these studies, organophosphate pesticides have become associated with acute health problems such as abdominal pain, dizziness, headaches, nausea, vomiting, as well as skin and eye problems.[19] In addition, there have been many other studies that have found pesticide exposure is associated with more severe health problems such as respiratory problems, memory disorders, dermatologic conditions,[20][21] cancer,[22] depression, neurologic deficits,[23][24] miscarriages, and birth defects.[25] Summaries of peer-reviewed research have examined the link between pesticide exposure and neurological outcomes and cancer in organophosphate-exposed workers.[26][27]

[edit] For consumers

A study published by the National Research Council in 1993 determined that for infants and children, the major source of exposure to pesticides is through diet.[28] A recent study in 2006 measured the levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in 23 schoolchildren before and after replacing their diet with organic food. In this study it was found that levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure dropped dramatically and immediately when the children switched to an organic diet.[29]

Most conventionally grown foods contain pesticides and herbicide residues. There is controversial data on the health implications of certain pesticides. The herbicide Atrazine, for example, has been shown in some experiments to be a teratogen, even at concentrations as low as 0.1 part per billion, to emasculate male frogs by causing their gonads to produce eggs – effectively turning males into hermaphrodites.[30]

The US Environmental Protection Agency and state agencies periodically review the licensing of suspect pesticides, but the process of de-listing is slow. One example of this slow process is exemplified by the pesticide Dichlorvos, or DDVP, which as recently as the year 2006 the EPA proposed its continued sale. The EPA has almost banned this pesticide on several occasions since the 1970s, but it never did so despite considerable evidence that suggests DDVP is not only carcinogenic but dangerous to the human nervous system – especially in children.[31]

A 2001 study by researchers at Washington State University concluded, under judgement by a panel of tasters, that organic apples were sweeter. Along with taste and sweetness, the texture as well as firmness of the apples were also rated higher than those grown conventionally. These differences are attributed to the greater soil quality resulting from organic farming techniques compared to those of conventional farming.[32]

[edit] Arguments opposing organic food

[edit] Food safety

Conventional food does contain pesticide residues – often multiple residues. In contrast, a study published in 2002 showed that "Organically grown foods consistently had about one-third as many residues as conventionally grown foods."[33][34] Yet, the potential health effects of pesticide residues found in food are subject to debate. One could argue that modern analytical chemistry is capable of detecting such small quantities of a substance that the meaning of a positive result is difficult to interpret, and many scientists think that such residues are without effect.[35] Pesticides are subjected to a battery of tests before they can be approved by the EPA [2] and "residue tolerances" are established above which produce exceeding these tolerances cannot be sold.

Furthermore the professors Lois Swirsky Gold and Bruce Ames argue :"Whereas public perceptions tend to identify chemicals as being only synthetic and only synthetic chemicals as being toxic, every natural chemical is also toxic at some dose," and have shown that 50% of all natural chemicals in food gave a positive test as a carcinogen when tested in rodents, casting doubt on any link of food residues and cancer risk.[36]

Author Thomas DeGregori argues that at the heart of the organic food movement are feelings of anti-technology and anti-modern science[37] and points out that it is modern science, after all, that has increased the life expectancy of many people and helps to feed the world's growing population.

[edit] Sustainability

  • Newer non-organic practices, particularly no-till agriculture, which relies on herbicides to clear the land, offer considerable improvements in energy efficiency. Anthony Trewavas argues that the sustainability of organic agriculture is less than that of conventional agriculture (see Trewavas (2000)[38][39]).
  • Soil benefits: Trevavas also argues that many of the soil benefits of organic agriculture have been demonstrated to be due to crop rotation, which is not an exclusively organic strategy (see Trewavas (2000) cited above).
  • Land usage: Organic food growers lose a significantly larger portion of their crops to pests, mold, etc, and therefore require significantly higher land usage to generate the same amount of product. One study shows that a crop of organic tomatoes, for example, would use approximately 642% more land than one grown via conventional methods.[40]
  • Pesticide use: While organic agriculture aims to keep pesticide use to a minimum, it is a common misconception that organic agriculture does not use pesticides. Some pesticides used on organic farms contain the heavy metal copper, which can lead to copper accumulation in the soil. Other pesticides that are approved for use by organic producers include ryania, sabadilla, and rotenone.[41]The botanical pesticide sabadilla is toxic to honeybees, and according to the California Department of Environmental Protection its mammalian toxicology has not been fully studied.[42]
  • Toxicity of "organic pesticides": Conventional pesticides must be thoroughly studied before they can be placed on the market[citation needed]. However, such studies are not required for the pesticides used in organic agriculture[citation needed].
  • John Kent, Lecturer in Agricultural Protection, from the School of Agriculture at Charles Sturt University in Australia supports the idea that organically grown food is not as sustainable, arguing that while organically grown food certainly has its place in today's free market, the world population could not be fed with pesticide-free agriculture.[43]

[edit] Organic food is expensive

Critics claim that organic food is more expensive than conventional food and thus too highly priced to be affordable to persons on a lower income. Organic products typically cost 10 to 40% more than similar conventionally produced products.[44]

[edit] Organic food has "sold out"

Organic food began as a small movement with farmers rejecting the use of conventional farming practices. With the market share of Organic food outpacing much of the food industry many big companies have moved into this market. With these large companies, and with the creation of a legal certification framework (2002 in the US), there is worry that the very definition of organic food will change from what it used to be.[45]

[edit] History

Modern agriculture, utilizing large amounts of artificial chemical inputs, monocultures, and intensive farming methods, is a recent phenomenon. Indeed, one could argue that almost the entire history of agriculture consists of what would be now termed "organic farming".

Rising consumer awareness of organic methods began in the 1950s with the promotion of organic gardening. In the 1960s and 1970s, one effect of a growing grassroots concern with environmental issues was the appearance of more elaborate approaches to organic food, including food-buying co-ops and dedicated organic producers. In the 1970s and 1980s, private sector organic certification and development of regulations at the governmental level began around the world. In the 1990s, formal organic certification began to be legislated in various countries, and this trend continues to today. During the same period, the organic food market experienced a sustained surge in growth, expanding at around 20% a year (exceeding the rest of the food industry by a factor of at least 10). The first years of the 21st century saw multinational food corporations taking major stakes in the organic market, and this has dramatically increased the variety, availability and falling cost of processed organic food.[citation needed]

[edit] Modern developments

The prices for organic food have been, and continue to be, higher than their conventional counterparts. This is because farmers who grow organic food have to meet stricter quality standards to have their products certified organic. More labor is required to achieve this, bringing up the cost.

Since the 1980's there has been a growth trend in supermarkets that carry large volumes of organic food. This includes Whole Foods Market in the US, and Waitrose in the UK. With large volume sales, these retailers have been bringing the price of organic food down.

In the United States the pressure to bring the cost down will vastly increase soon because in 2006, Wal-Mart, the largest grocery retailer, announced plans to increase the amount of organic food available in its stores.[46] Both conventionally grown and organic versions of certain products will be available, but Wal-Mart intends to keep the price of the organic versions to no more than 10% over the price of the conventionally grown counterparts.

Because of Wal-Mart's size and business practices, their move into selling organic food has some people worried.[47] Specifically, the increase in demand for organic food will require that more organic produce be imported.[48] Secondly, the push to lower prices might "virtually guarantee that Wal-Mart's version of cheap organic food is not sustainable".[49]

[edit] Related movements

Various alternative organic standards are emerging. They generally bypass formal certification, which can be expensive and cumbersome, and provide their own definition of organic food. One such, the Authentic Food standard, proposed by leading US organic farmer Eliot Coleman, includes criteria that are incompatible with current agribusiness:

  • All foods are produced by the growers who sell them.
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables, milk, eggs and meat products are produced within a 50-mile radius of their place of their final sale.
  • The seed and storage crops (grains, beans, nuts, potatoes, etc.) are produced within a 300-mile radius of their final sale.
  • Only traditional processed foods such as cheese, wine, bread and lactofermented products may claim, "Made with Authentic ingredients."[50]

Some are also implementing new approaches to defining and buying food. Community-supported agriculture (CSA) is one such approach, that cuts out all the middlemen by having consumers partner with local farmers. CSA members prepurchase "shares" in a season's harvest, and pick up their weekly portions from distribution sites. Thus, consumers provide direct financing for farms, participate in the risks and rewards of annual growing conditions, and participate with farmers in distribution networks.

CSA is one example of "buying locally," which is often valued by both the organic food consumer and producer. Generally speaking, locally-grown seasonal food can be brought to market more quickly than food that has to be transported long distances, and therefore can be better tasting and to some degree more nutritious by virtue of its freshness. Additionally, the act of buying foods that are locally-grown benefits local farmers and other employers. This local food approach is seen as a direct investment in one's own community and a way to reduce economic dependence.

Organic food is also often linked with the fair trade movement, based on the principle that social and environmental sustainability are inextricably interdependent.